PSYC 2131:?Introduction to Childhood and Adolescence

Assignments
Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions
PSYC 2131:?Introduction to Childhood and Adolescence?has four assignments. Each assignment is divided into various parts, which include questions assessing your understanding of your course text material, responses to exploratory activities you are asked to complete, and discussion postings.
Preparing Your Assignments
The following suggestions will help you to prepare your course assignments successfully. Read them carefully before you begin:
Refer to the Suggested Schedule for direction as to when to submit each assignment. While you are free to work through the course at your own pace, you will learn more effectively and increase your likelihood of success if you spread the work out evenly throughout the duration of the course.
Note:?If your goal is to complete the course?in 16 weeks, you should meet the timetable set out in the?Suggested Schedule.
Read all assignment directions and questions before you begin preparing your answers.
Multiple questions can be answered by including the question number and the letter of your selected answer, e.g., 1. A; 2. B.; etc.
Ensure that you develop your answers to the written questions using your own words. Do not provide answers that include information copied directly from your course material. While it can be a difficult process, writing answers that express concepts and issues in your own words has direct learning benefits: this strategy will ensure that you understand the course material at a deep level, and it will increase the likelihood that you will remember the information.
Be sure that your assignments are clearly written and that the material is organized in a logical fashion, using correct sentence and paragraph structure. Be sure to double space your lines and include your name and the assignment number at the top of the first page.
Proofread your final copy. Although electronic spell checkers will find most errors, they are not foolproof and can, at times, mislead you. It is still necessary to proofread your work to catch certain types of mistakes and grammatical errors. By correcting your grammar and spelling errors, you can polish your assignments and bring clarity to your ideas.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Your written course work, including the module activities, should be independently developed and reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:
Addressed the questions or assignment posed.
Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling. Students can contact the TRU Writing Centre for help with written work at?https://www.tru.ca/writingcentre/Open_Learning_Writing_Centre_Support.html.
Please refer also to any additional criteria that may be included in the individual assignments.
Sending Your Assignment to Your Open Learning Faculty Member
As soon as you have completed an assignment, save your document on your computer and then send a copy to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. Follow the instructions in the “Assignments” section of your course.
See “How to Submit an Assignment Using Assignment Tool” in the “Assignments” section of your course.
Be sure to include your name, the course code, assignment number, and the date of submission on the title page of your assignments, so they can be easily identified, and you get credit for all your work. Use headers in the body of your written assignments to make sure all components of your assignments are clearly identified (course code, your surname, assignment number, date [day, month, year]).
Name your assignment file as follows: course number_your surname_assignment number_date. For example, if your name is Jan Martin and you are submitting Assignment 2, name your file: PSYC2131_Martin_Assignment2_14June2015.
Note:?Always keep a copy of each assignment you submit so that you have a copy to refer to in the event of a telephone or email conference with your Open Learning Faculty Member. In addition, many student writing manuals recommend that students keep copies of early drafts of their work to protect them against potential charges of plagiarism.
As soon as you have submitted your assignment, and while waiting for your Open Learning Faculty Member to return it, begin the next module.
When your marked assignment is returned, review your Open Learning Faculty Member?s comments and queries. Take the time to carefully go over the marked assignment. If necessary, reread sections of the textbook or unit commentary that gave you trouble. What lessons can you apply to your next assignment? Contact your Open Learning Faculty Member by phone if you have any questions or problems.
Your Open Learning Faculty Member is responsible for the grade you receive on an assignment. If you disagree with a mark, discuss it with her/him right away. Also, he/she alone decides whether you may or may not rewrite and assignment. You should know, however, that it is not customary to allow revisions of already graded work unless you make a formal appeal. This is why telephone contact with your Open Learning Faculty Member before an assignment submission is important, particularly if you are having difficulty.

Module 4: Adolescence
Module 4: Adolescence
Overview
Your final module in this course covers adolescence, the developmental period that bridges childhood and adulthood. Regardless of their age, students often report that memories of adolescence are still quite vivid. It can be revealing to look back on this time from the perspective of, one hopes, greater maturity!
Module 4 is divided into three topics, one topic for each of the textbook chapters you will be reading:
4.1 Physical Development in Adolescence
4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence
4.3 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Learning Objectives
After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:
Summarize the major physical changes that occur during pubertal maturation.
Summarize the impact of pubertal change on emotions, sleep, social relationships, and sexual behaviour.
Discuss research findings regarding the risk factors and impact of disordered eating, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse and risky behaviour.
Summarize the major cognitive and social cognitive developments that occur during adolescence.
Summarize the factors associated with academic success and failure in teens.
Discuss the research findings on the impact of part time work during adolescence.
Describe the factors associated with the emergence of adolescence as a distinct life period.
Summarize the major socioemotional developmental changes that occur during adolescence.
Contrast the role of parents, peers, friendships and dating partners in teen social adjustment.
Summarize the factors associated with teen delinquency, depression and suicide.
Contrast the major patterns of child-caregiver attachments that have been identified and the patterns of caregiver behaviour associated with each.
Demonstrate, using research evidence, the impact of contexts such as family and daycare upon children?s development during adolescence.
Resources
Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.?Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283?292.
Henry, K. B. (2011)?Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein?s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011).?Development: Adolescence through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Module 4: Adolescence
4.1 Physical Development in Adolescence
Other than infancy, no other phase of life involves as much or as rapid physical development as puberty. But unlike an infant, the pubertal teen is profoundly self-aware of the awkwardness and fraught moments associated with these bodily transformations. Your study in this lesson will highlight the intricate process of pubertal development and the psychological and social changes this engenders in the young person.
Activity 4.1: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises
Read Chapter 13 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 13.
Reread the ?Tips for Study and Exam Preparation? document found on the course Home Page.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 13, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Module 4: Adolescence
4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Much of what we associate with the apex of human intellectual abilities emerges in the teen years. The human capacity for hypothesis generation and philosophical abstraction, criticism and invention, idealism and speculation can all be traced to the cognitive changes that emerge during adolescence.
Activity 4.2: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 14 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 14.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 14, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 4 ? Adolescence (Part A): Exploration Activity 1?Barbie Dolls and Body Image
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part A: Exploration Activity 1?Barbie Dolls and Body Image.

Module 4: Adolescence
4.3 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Because the young person is undergoing the myriad physical changes that lead to sexual maturation, developments relating to emotion and self have particular significance. Constructing and maintaining a coherent sense of self in the midst of these profound biological changes is a major developmental task for teens. Your reading for this topic will provide you with an understanding of the developmental changes that take place in self-concept and identity during the teen years.
Your final lesson in the course explores the changing and expanding contexts that frame adolescent development including family, peers, friendships and romantic relationships. Research findings that illuminate factors associated with teen depression, suicide and delinquency are also presented.
Activity 4.3: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 14 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 15.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 15, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 4 ? Adolescence (Part B): Discussion 4?Reflections on Adolescence
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part B of Assignment 4.
Assignment 4 ? Adolescence (Part C): Written Questions
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part C of Assignment 4. Your now completed Assignment 4 should be submitted to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking at the end of Module 4.
Assignment 4 ? Adolescence (100 marks, 14%)
Introduction
This assignment is based on Module 4. It will be graded out of 100 marks and is worth 14 per cent of your final course grade. This assignment has three parts:
Part A: Exploration Activity (30 marks)
Part B: Discussion 4 (20 marks)
Part C: Written Questions (50 marks)
If you have any questions about the assignment, consult your Open Learning Faculty Member. You are encouraged to submit your completed assignment for grading by the end of Week 13 of the course.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Your assignments should be independently developed and should reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:
Addressed the questions or assignment posed.
Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling.
Please refer also to any additional criteria that may be included in this individual assignment.
Instructions
Part A: Exploration Activity?Barbie Dolls and Body Image (30 marks)
As your textbook authors point out, many adolescent girls struggle with body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and dieting. The causes for this state of affairs are complex and multifaceted. Even though body image issues are normative in western females, males are not immune. For example, young males with body image issues may engage in steroid abuse and exercise addictions. In this activity, you will read about the findings of a team of researchers interested in this issue. This group set out to research the impact of Barbie dolls on the body image of young girls.
Locating the Article at the TRU Library
For Module 1, you located and explored a variety of published articles from an electronic or e- journal. For this final course exploration activity, you will need to locate the following research article from the electronic holdings at TRU library:
Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.?Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283?292.
If necessary, you can contact a TRU librarian to help you to access this article, but the following set of instructions should enable you to locate this resource on your own:
Go to the TRU library web site at?http://www.tru.ca/library/.
Click?Index & Databases.
Click?PsycARTICLES.
Type ?Barbie doll? into one of the search boxes and the Dittmar et al. article should appear in the results.
To see the full text of the article, click either the HTML or PDF Full Text links.
Pre-reading
Before beginning the exploratory activity, you may find it helpful to re-read ?Library Research 101?Doing Research at a Distance? available at?http://libguides.tru.ca/c.php?g=193957.
This exploratory activity will give you an opportunity to see how research findings on child development are reported and communicated to other scientists. The Dittmar et al. article is written for a professional audience, and so you can expect that sections of it will be difficult to read and follow. There is neither a requirement nor an expectation that you understand the more complicated sections of the paper, e.g., the statistical analysis of the findings. Instead, aim to understand the paper in terms of?the question(s) investigated, the methodology used to study this research question, and the implications of the study findings.?You may be surprised at how much of the paper?s ?Introduction and Discussion? section you can understand and follow.
Reading and Summarizing the Article
Read the Dittmar et al. (2006) article and then write a one?two page summary of it in your own words. Include:
An explanation of why the researchers felt it was important to investigate the impact of Barbie dolls. The nature of the three experimental conditions used in the study.
The nature of the three experimental conditions used in the study.
The size and age of the children who participated in the study.
The major finding of the study.
Your assessment of whether the study findings provide convincing support for the promotion of more realistically shaped and sized dolls, such as Emme.
Part B: Discussion 4?Reflections on Adolescence (20 marks)
Go to the ?Discussions? area on the left-hand navigation menu and complete the discussion posting entitled ?Discussion 4: Reflections on Adolescence.?
In the reading for this module, you were introduced to the notion that the concept of adolescence was invented. While the biological changes associated with puberty and sexual maturation are quite clear cut, the demarcation between the life periods of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are more of a social construction and have varied historically as a result of economic conditions, war periods, etc.
In your posting, describe how your memories of your own teen years compare to present day teens and the adolescent experiences of your parents? Grandparents? In your view, what demarcates the passage from childhood to adulthood? Is it separation from the parental household, entry into the job market, completion of education, financial independence, a serious romantic partnership, or a combination of these? Are there other criteria? Explain. (15 marks)
Also comment or respond to a fellow student?s input. (5 marks)
Part C: Written Questions (50 marks)
Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:
Parents, usually nervous about their children entering adolescence, anticipate a period of ?storm and stress.? Discuss to what extent this expectation is valid. (10 marks)
Read the following passage from Trenton Lee Stewart?s (2007, pp. 56?57) book?The Mysterious Benedict Society?in which the 11?year-old protagonist Reynie tries to find his way through a house:
?Well,? he said aloud, to bolster his courage, ?there?s no time to waste, so here goes.? He plunged through the doorway ahead of him (this ought to be the most direct path to the rear of the house) and, as if by magic, seemed to walk into the very room he has just left. It was cramped, brightly lit, painted black, and he could see a dark doorway in each wall.
?What in the world!? he said, turning to look behind him, then in confusion turning round again. If he hadn?t turned around, he might have kept his bearings, but now he?d lost them. He was in a maze of identical rooms. Everything looked exactly the same in every direction.
His confidence was quickly draining away.
?Now, think,? he told himself. ?When you enter a room, its light must turn on automatically, and when you leave it, it goes off. But there are light switches by each door. Perhaps if you throw a switch, the light stays on. It might be as simple as that.?
With a quick inspection of the nearest doorway, however, the hope vanished. What Reynie supposed were light switches were only decorative wooden panels. He was about to turn away and retrace his steps when it occurred to him that the panels themselves might be important. He took a closer look at one. About the size of a playing card, the panel had four arrows etched into it, pointing in different directions and painted different colors. A blue arrow pointed to the right, a green one to the left, a wiggly-shaped yellow one straight ahead, and a purple one down.
Of course, Reynie thought feeling foolish. The arrows weren?t for decoration ?they were meant to show the way. But which was he to believe? After going round to every panel he was no better off. Four doorways with four arrows meant sixteen arrows to choose from, and there was no apparent pattern. Reynie racked his brain: Should he follow the green ones? Green arrows on a traffic signal mean ?Go.? But perhaps that was too obvious. Perhaps the red arrows were the ones to follow?perhaps that was the trick. Yet that hardly seemed fair. What if he?d been color-blind and couldn?t even tell the difference.
No sooner had this occurred to him than he knew the secret.
Using the textbook?s discussion of cognitive development, show how Reynie?s thinking illustrates aspects of both Piaget?s theory and information processing theory as they apply to young teens. (10 marks)
A group of teenagers is having a party. Describe how adolescent egocentrism, imaginary audience, and personal fable concepts could lead to a party with lots of problems. (10 marks)
Describe each of James Marcia?s four identity statuses and, for each, provide a brief description of a hypothetical first-year university student who typifies each status. (10 marks)
You have now reached the end of your course, having covered child development from conception to adolescence. Reflect on what you have learned and identify one topic or research finding in the course that you found particularly valuable. In your own words, identify and briefly describe the topic/research finding and discuss why it has been significant to you. What question or area of research would you like to learn more about in the future and why? (10 marks)
Submission Instructions
Read the ?Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions? section carefully. As soon as you have completed all parts of Assignment 4, name and save your document, and send it to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. It is recommended that you submit this assignment by the end of?Week 13?if you are following the 16-week Suggested Schedule.
Module 3: Middle Childhood
Module 3: Middle Childhood
Overview
When we think of middle childhood, we are apt to picture a school playground filled with running, shouting children. Full of energy and vitality, children make enormous strides cognitively, emotionally, and socially during these years. In this module, you will explore many developmental themes pertaining to middle childhood, including gender socialization, the emergence of logical reasoning, and the influence of developmental contexts ranging from family, close friends, and peers, to school.
Module 3 is divided into three topics, one topic for each of the textbook chapters you will be reading:
3.1 Physical Development in Middle Childhood
3.2 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
3.3 Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
Learning Objectives
After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:
Summarize the major physical changes that occur during middle childhood and early childhood including brain development and motor abilities.
Explain and provide examples of the impact of obesity, sleep shortages, accidental injuries and illness up children in the middle years.
Summarize the major cognitive and linguistic developments that occur during middle childhood.
Differentiate the different approaches taken to the measurement of intelligence and factors that contribute to IQ scores.
Describe the educational challenges that children may face and factors associated with educational success.
Summarize the major socioemotional developmental changes that occur during middle childhood including self-concept, gender concepts and moral reasoning and behaviour.
Demonstrate the impact of contexts such as family life, peer groups and friendships, school and media on development during middle childhood.
Compare the perspectives taken by the major theoretical perspectives on cognitive development.
Demonstrate, using research evidence, the impact of developmental contexts such as family life, daycare, and peer groups upon children?s development during early childhood.
Resources
Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Children & Family Development website at?http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/organizational-structure/ministries-organizations/ministries/children-and-family-development.
Henry, K. B. (2011)?Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein?s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mitra, S. (2010).?The child-driven education. Retrieved from TED at?http://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_the_child_driven_education.html.
Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011).?Development: Middle childhood through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
The Roots of Empathy website at?http://www.rootsofempathy.org/.

Module 3: Middle Childhood
3.1 Physical Development in Middle Childhood
While brain and physical changes of the middle years are less dramatic than that seen in the younger years, this continuing maturation underpins the expanding capacity of the youngster to explore and engage with the world.
Activity 3.1: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises
Read Chapter 10 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 10.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 10, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Module 3: Middle Childhood
3.2 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
Cognitive development during middle childhood can be described using the image of cursive loops. Cognitive advances occur on one front, loop back, and create opportunities for learning in other areas. For example, as children move into middle childhood, their thinking changes qualitatively from what was evident in early childhood. Now, the child is able to reason with more coherence and logic about events in his/her world. These logical advances open new possibilities for the child in terms of questions he or she can ask and the answers he or she can understand. Similarly, an improved ability to pay attention, to remember information, and to reflect on one?s thought processes feeds back and facilitates the mastery of a host of academic and non-academic skills. In short, it is during this period that the child begins, in earnest, to master the skills that he or she will carry throughout life.
Activity 3.2: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 11 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 11.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 11, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
3.3 Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
As students, team members, young performers and volunteers, the school-age child exerts more presence in public life. Expanded participation in the broader world goes hand in hand with enhanced psychological development in the child. The inner world of the child deepens and becomes more textured. Your text reading covers changes in the school-age child’s perspective-taking abilities, awareness of gender expectations, emotional and moral understanding.
Activity 3.3: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 12 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 12.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 12, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 3 ? Middle Childhood (Part B): Exploration Activity 2?Babies as Teachers
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Assignment 3, Part B: Exploration Activity 2.
Assignment 3 ? Middle Childhood (Part C): Discussion 3?Children and Families in BC
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part C of Assignment 3.
Assignment 3 ? Middle Childhood (Part D): Written Questions
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part D of Assignment 3. Your completed Assignment 3 should be submitted to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking at the end of Module 3.
Also, please remember to check the Exam Department for available final exam dates, choose one that suits you, and complete an exam application form by the deadline.
Assignment 3 ? Middle Childhood (100 marks, 12%)
Introduction
This assignment is based on Module 3. It will be graded out of 100 marks and is worth 12 per cent of your final course grade. This assignment has four parts:
Part A: Exploration Activity 1 (15 marks)
Part B: Exploration Activity 2 (15 marks)
Part C: Discussion 3 (15 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (55 marks)
If you have any questions about the assignment, consult your Open Learning Faculty Member. You are encouraged to submit your completed assignment for grading by the end of Week 10 of the course.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Your assignments should be independently developed and should reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:
Addressed the questions or assignment posed.
Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling.
Please refer also to any additional criteria that may be included in this individual assignment.
Instructions
Part A: Exploration Activity 1?Sugatra Mitra?s Hole in the Wall Project (15 marks)
Your textbook authors devote attention to the developmental context of schools during middle childhood. Although schooling is a common experience for many youngsters around the globe, this is not the case for children growing up in extreme poverty and isolation. As well, questions are arising about the changing nature of education in our connected world. In this exploration activity, you will learn about a scientist who has catalogued the potential of children to learn when they are linked with computers, and who suggests some rather radical innovations in education.
View?the video?Sugata Mitra: Build a School in the Cloud?at?https://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_build_a_school_in_the_cloud?language=en#t-1321256.
After watching Mitra?s presentation, develop answers in your own words to the following questions:
Why does Mitra argue that teachers do not need to be present for children to learn? What evidence does he have for this assertion?
Does that mean teachers are obsolete? Explain.
In what ways does Mitra think education will change in the future? How might this impact the children who already are in school?
What would Lev Vygotsky have thought about Mitra?s talk?
What would Jean Piaget have thought about Mitra?s talk?
Part B: Exploration Activity 2: Babies as Teachers (15 marks)
Roots of Empathy (ROE) is an innovative program in which babies and school age children are brought together for a most valuable purpose.
Go to The Roots of Empathy website at?http://www.rootsofempathy.org/. This well-organized website contains information about the program and findings from research studies documenting its impact. Included are links to scores of news and media reports, documenting the program and its impact on children. You are encouraged to explore any of the information and resources on this website.
For a good overview of the program, point your cursor over?Newsroom?in the main menu at the top of the home page. Click?Media Kit/Key Information?and then?Watch the Roots of Empathy video?and view the video. After watching it, answer the following questions in your own words:
Describe what takes place in a classroom where a Roots of Empathy (ROE) program is being run.
Three primary goals of the ROE program are encouraging emotional literacy, problem solving, and the acceptance of diversity in children. Briefly explain what is meant by each of these goals.
Refer back to the findings regarding bullies and victims discussed in your module text reading. Why do you think schools that participate in a ROE program report lowered rates of bullying amongst students?
Part C: Discussion 3?Children and Families in BC (15 marks)
Go to the ?Discussions? area on the left-hand navigation menu and complete the discussion posting entitled ?Discussion 3: Children and Families in BC.?
Go to the Healthy Families BC website at?https://www.healthyfamiliesbc.ca/. The range of topics, resources, and links located on this site reflect the type of issues that are concerns for parents.
Select one resource or link pertaining to a?school-aged child?that interests you. In the Discussion, post a description of the information related to your interest, including any recommendations. Relate the material to theory or research in your textbook. Pose at least one follow-up question that you have after reading the resource. (10 marks)
As well, comment or respond to a fellow student?s input. (5 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (55 marks)
Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:
One of the causes of traumatic brain injury in children is head impacts sustained while playing sports. Middle childhood is a time when many children play organized sports, often at increasingly competitive levels. Choose any sport where an injury causing concussion could occur, and explore how that sport?s governing body has taken steps to prevent and reduce the number of concussions in children. Examples might be hockey, lacrosse, boxing, mountain biking, etc. Summarize your findings, including descriptions of why that sport poses a concussion risk and what steps the sport is taking to prevent concussion in children. Speculate about what further steps are needed. Make sure you give a credible reference for your work; typically, this will involve the governing body for the sport in question. (10 marks)
Age is no guarantee of better memory. Child ?experts ?can outperform adults. Why might children perform better than an adult on a memory task such as knowledge of a specific topic, or classification and identification of things like models of cars? What strategies might children be knowingly or unknowingly using that contribute to superior memory? Provide an example. (5 marks)
Applying what you have learned about Sternberg?s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, describe how a Grade 5 teacher might teach his/her class about the basic structure and function of bodily systems, such as the circulatory system or the digestive system. Show how the teacher appeals to and uses children?s analytical, practical, and creative intelligences. (15 marks)
The concept of family is discussed at length in your textbook. Family can include people related to you by blood, marriage, and adoption. It includes two parents, single parents, stepparents, same-sex parents, grandparents, and so on. Children can have siblings, no siblings, step-siblings, and half-siblings. Family structure is fluid over time as adults marry, divorce, and remarry. Many couples live together without marrying. Describe your own family structure during your childhood, including any changes over time, and a brief description of the effects each member had, if any, on your development. (5 marks)
Discuss how children?s ideas about friendship and behaviour toward their peers change between early childhood and the end of middle childhood. (10 marks)
Explain why interactions with parents and peers are important contributors to advancements in moral reasoning. (2 marks)
Construct an original scenario placing a child in a realistic moral dilemma. Examples might be discovering another child cheating at school; shoplifting candy from the corner store; telling a lie to parents. Your scenario should end with a question about what the child should do. Provide both ?should do? and ?shouldn?t do? responses for the scenario from?all three?of Kohlber?s levels of moral reasoning (6 responses in total). (8 marks)
Submission Instructions
Read the ?Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions? section carefully. As soon as you have completed all parts of Assignment 3, name and save your document, and send it to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. It is recommended that you submit this assignment by the end of?Week 10?if you are following the 16-week Suggested Schedule.
Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
Overview
As a student of human development, you are learning about the period of infancy at an exciting time. We know more about the infancy period now than at any other time in history. Advances in brain imaging techniques and video recording technologies along with the cumulative efforts of researchers have revealed that, behind all their gurgling, arm movements, and cute facial expressions, babies are doing important work.
Children leave infancy, bursting with energy and curiosity, ready to learn about the environment around them. The material covered in this module will provide you with a deeper understanding of how the world is viewed through the eyes of a young child. With resourcefulness and effort, children make tremendous cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional advances during early childhood. But ask any parent of a preschooler and you will learn that children at this age do and say and think the ?darndest things.? Research discussed in this module will shed some light on why young children make the charming errors in understanding and speech that are so characteristic of this age.
Module 2 is divided into six topics, one topic for each of the textbook chapters you will be reading:
2.1 Physical Development in Infancy
2.2 Cognitive Development in Infancy
2.3 Socioemotional Development in Infancy
2.4 Physical Development in Early Childhood
2.5 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
2.6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
Learning Objectives
After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:
Summarize the major physical changes that occur during infancy and early childhood, including neurological, motor, sensory and perceptual abilities
Summarize the major cognitive and linguistic developments that occur during infancy
Summarize the major socioemotional developmental changes that occur during infancy
Contrast the major patterns of child-caregiver attachments that have been identified and the patterns of caregiver behaviour associated with each.
Demonstrate using research evidence the impact of contexts such as family and daycare upon children?s development during infancy.
Summarize the major physical changes that occur during early childhood including neurological, motor, sensory and perceptual abilities.
Explain and provide examples of the common health risks faced by young children.
Summarize the major cognitive, linguistic and socioemotional developmental changes that occur during early childhood.
Compare the perspectives taken by the major theoretical perspectives on cognitive development.
Demonstrate using research evidence the impact of developmental contexts such as family life, daycare, and peer groups upon children?s development during early childhood.
Resources
Henry, K. B. (2011)?Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein?s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Kuhl, Patricia, (2010).?Linguistic Genius of Babies. Retrieved from TED?http://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_kuhl_the_linguistic_genius_of_babies.html.
Nicolopoulou, A. (2010). The alarming disappearance of play from early childhood education.?Human Development, 53, 1?4.
Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011).?Development: Infancy through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.1 Physical Development in Infancy
Your reading for this topic will give you insights into what researchers now understand about the ?tool kit? with which infants come into the world. Here you will learn about the sensory, perceptual, and learning capabilities of infants and the neurological developments that support these capabilities.
Activity 2.1: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises
Read Chapter 4, pages 105?121 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 4. Omit self-test items that pertain to the omitted pages 95?105.
Reread the study and exam preparation advice you have been previously given.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 4, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.2 Cognitive Development in Infancy
As adults, we live with the conviction that objects and people that are out of sight continue to exist independently of our line of vision. The understanding that objects such as our bathtub continue to exist when out of view is self-evident to us as adults. Hence, it is hard to imagine how one could ever think otherwise. But according to the famous developmentalist, Jean Piaget, this understanding is not found in newborns. Instead, the child only gradually constructs an understanding of the concept of the permanent object over the course of the infancy period. In this topic you will learn about Piaget?s description of the development of the object concept. You will also learn that his theory has not gone without challenge. Nonetheless, Piaget?s view of infancy as a period in which profound cognitive advances take place irrevocably changed how psychologists look at this early period of life.
Activity 2.2: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 5 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 5.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 5, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 2 ? Infancy and Early Childhood (Part A): Exploration Activity 1?Researching the Linguistic Abilities of Infants
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part A: Exploration Activity 1.

Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.3 Socioemotional Development in Infancy
?Getting to know you? would describe many of the themes developed in this topic. Infancy is the time in which children become intimately acquainted with their parents and other close caregivers. This ?getting-to-know? process leads to the development of the child?s first attachments. Similarly, as they care for their newborn, parents discover the unique temperamental qualities of their child and observe firsthand the gradual flowering of his/her emotional expressiveness and sociability. The reading in this topic includes a discussion of the normal course of emotional and social advances and the factors associated with healthy and less than optimal attachment and emotional development.
Activity 2.3: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 6 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 6.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 6, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.4 Physical Development in Early Childhood
Young children learn to run and climb, manipulate, open, uncover, approach, and explore their environment. The physical advances that enable the child to achieve all this as well as some of the health challenges that mark this time period are the focus of your readings for this topic.
Activity 2.4: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 7 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 7.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 7, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.5 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
A student related the following story about his young preschool daughter:
This father observed his daughter staring down at the remains of a squashed bug. To discourage her from touching the dead insect, the father explained to his daughter that the bug was dead as a result of being stepped on. Sometime after this exchange, the father and daughter were looking at a family photo album. The daughter expressed some puzzlement over a particular picture. The photo depicted her as a young infant being held by an elderly man. Her father noted that the man in the photo was her grandfather and that her grandfather was now dead, having passed away several months after the picture was taken. The daughter remained silent for a while and then turned to her father and asked, ?But who stepped on him??
This story illustrates some of the themes that will be introduced in this topic?s reading on cognitive development in early childhood. Young children discover much about their world by observing and participating in events. Moreover, they work hard to make connections, however misguided, between what they are learning in the different contexts of their daily life.
Activity 2.5: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 8 of the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 8.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 8, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 2 ? Infancy and Early Childhood (Part B): Exploration Activity 2?The Disappearance of Play
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Assignment 2, Part B: Exploration Activity 2.

2.6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
The sociologist, Talcott Parsons, once described newborns in hospital nurseries as ?recurring hordes of barbarians.? This rather unconventional description of babies is meant to dramatize the following reality. Children do not come into the world hardwired with the knowledge and skills needed for effective social interactions. Like the barbarians, identified historically as the antithesis of civilized life, young children must gradually learn the social skills, manners, and emotional control that will enable them to form friendships and to have satisfying group interactions. This work starts in earnest during early childhood as the child?s social world expands to include settings such as preschool, daycare, playgroups, and community life. In the reading and activities for this topic, you will examine in detail the social and emotional advances made during early childhood.
Activity 2.6: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 9 of the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 9.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 2, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 2 ? Infancy and Early Childhood (Part C): Discussion 2?Gender Messages Directed at Children
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Assignment 2, Part C: Discussion 2?Gender Messages Directed at Children.
Assignment 2 ? Infancy and Early Childhood (Part D): Written Questions
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part D of Assignment 2. Your completed Assignment 2 should be submitted to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking at the end of Module 2.
Assignment 2 ? Infancy and Early Childhood (100 marks, 12%)
Introduction
This assignment is based on Module 2. It will be graded out of 100 marks and is worth 12 per cent of your final course grade. This assignment has four parts:
Part A: Exploration Activity 1 (15 marks)
Part B: Exploration Activity 2 (15 marks)
Part C: Discussion 2 (20 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (50 marks)
If you have any questions about the assignment, consult your Open Learning Faculty Member. You are encouraged to submit your completed assignment for grading by the end of?Week 7?of the course.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Your assignments should be independently developed and should reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:
Addressed the questions or assignment posed.
Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling.
Please refer also to any additional criteria that may be included in this individual assignment.
Instructions
Part A: Exploration Activity 1?Researching the Linguistic Abilities of Infants (15 marks)
As noted linguist Noam Chomsky has pointed out, language is what describes ?the human essence.? In your Module 2 textbook reading, you learned how the process of language acquisition begins during infancy. For this exploration activity, you will listen to a short talk by the language researcher Dr. Patricia Kuhl. The title of Dr. Kuhl?s talk is the ?Linguistic Genius of Babies,? which you can find at?http://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_kuhl_the_linguistic_genius_of_babies.html.
Note that subtitles and a transcript are available for Dr. Kuhl?s talk on the TED website. Another example of the type of research Dr. Kuhl has described to determine if babies can detect particular sounds is available at?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXWGnryjEaY. This YouTube video features Canadian researcher Janet Werker.
After listening to Dr. Kuhl?s presentation, develop answers for the following questions in your own words:
Why does Dr. Kuhl refer to babies as ?citizens of the world?? Also, what does she mean by the expression?a culture-bound listener?
The term?critical period?is similar to the term?sensitive period?that is discussed in your textbook. What is the critical period for sound perception?
Describe the technique that Dr. Kuhl and Werker used to investigate the critical period for sound perception.
Summarize the research that led Dr. Kuhl to conclude that babies need humans to learn. What comment would you make to parents who were considering purchasing language DVDs or audiotapes for their infants to listen to and learn from?
Describe the technological innovation that Dr. Kuhl argues is responsible for the start of a ?golden age? for knowledge about infant brain development. What can researchers now easily study that they could not do before?
Part B: Exploration Activity 2?The Disappearance of Play? (15 marks)
Childhood is synonymous with play. Recently, however, child development experts point to a marked reduction in the amount of time children spend in unstructured play activities. In 2000, this decline prompted the American Pediatrics Association to publish a paper highlighting research findings linking play with a host of positive developmental outcomes. Smartphones, tablets, and video gaming systems have waylaid children even further. An article by Witherspoon and Manning (2012) reviews the decline in play, the decline in outside play specifically, and the increase in children?s playful use of technology in recent years.
Read?the following article that is available online through PsycARTICLES at the TRU library:
Witherspoon, L., & Manning, J. P. (2012). Active gaming: The future of play??American Journal of Play, 4(4), 464?487.
Answer the following questions, in your own words, based on your reading of the textbook and the Witherspoon and Manning article:
What six factors define play? How do online or technology-based games fail to meet these definitional criteria?
In what ways is play critical to child development?
Parents are often concerned that their children do well scholastically. How sympathetic are you to the view that educational activities are of more value for youngsters than unstructured playtime?
Part C: Discussion 2?Gender Messages Directed at Children (20 marks)
Go to the ?Discussions? area on the left-hand navigation menu and complete the second formal discussion posting entitled ?Discussion 2: Gender Messages Directed at Children.?
Children?s emerging understanding of gender is one of the developments discussed in this module?s reading. The environment around a child is a rich source of gender-based information. For this discussion, you are asked to locate an example of media directed at young preschool children, for example, a television program, video, book, video game, or website. Consider the media resource you have selected in terms of its gender messages. Does your example present gender stereotypes or more neutral or cross-gendered messages, e.g., girls taking part in stereotypically boy activities and vice versa?
In the Discussions area, post a brief description of the resource you identified. Present your observations regarding the gender messages embedded in your media example. How does the content and messages in your selection differ from, or mirror, the media influences you were exposed to as a child? Finally, describe how exposure to your resource might impact a child?s gender socialization and gender schemas. (15 marks)
Comment or respond to a fellow student?s input. (5 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (50 marks)
Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:
Draw from your course reading to describe two examples of how the perceptual capacities of infants match those of adults, and one example of how they differ. Note that perceptual capacities are those related to the senses, such as sight. (10 marks)
Teaching a child to tie his/her own shoes can be a difficult task for both parents and child. It can take many sessions of practice. Explain how a parent might use scaffolding in this process. (10 marks)
In many cultures, stories about magical figures are told to children by caregivers. Describe the features of pre-operational thought that would explain why children in this age group willingly believe such stories. Explain your choices. (10 marks)
Suppose you are the parent of a child with a?difficult?temperament (see the discussion in the textbook). Describe the difficulties that your child has that relate to temperament. Explain what the parenting challenges would be associated with your child?s temperament and describe how you would meet those challenges. Give some practical examples of parenting strategies that would help to build secure attachment in your child, and would help your child get along with his/her peers. (20 marks)
Submission Instructions
Read the ?Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions? section carefully. As soon as you have completed all parts of Assignment 2, name and save your document, and send it to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. It is recommended that you submit this assignment by the end of?Week 7?if you are following the 16-week Suggested Schedule.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXWGnryjEaY
Module 1: Foundations
1.3 Conception, Prenatal Development and Birth
You are now ready to begin the study of human development itself. And how does it all begin? The material covered in this topic will answer this question. You will learn about the fascinating story of prenatal development. You will also gain an appreciation of how the physical and mental health of the newborn is intimately tied to a variety of maternal and environmental influences.
Activity 1.8: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 3 of your text.
Complete Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 3.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 3, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 1 ? Foundations (Part C): Exploration Activity 2?Extending the Healthy Pregnancy Quiz
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Assignment 1, Part C: Exploration Activity 2.
Assignment 1 ? Foundations (Part D): Written Questions
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part D of Assignment 1. Submit your completed Assignment 1 to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking at the end of Module 1.
Module 1: Foundations
1.2 Nature with Nurture
Understanding how the unique genetic inheritance of youngsters interacts with their environments is the focus of this module topic. The environments in which children develop can vary widely. A challenge for researchers is how to adequately describe and inventory this variation in child-rearing contexts. Part of your reading for this topic will introduce you to a descriptive model that addresses this task. This model, developed by psychologist, Urie Bronfenbrenner, positions each individual child within a series of concentric circles, or ?spheres of influence.? Each circle represents the various interconnected contexts in which the developing child matures. While conceptually simple, the value of Bronfenbrenner?s model is that it draws attention to both the obvious contexts that impact upon child development, such as parents and home life, as well as influences we are apt to overlook, such as family income, school quality, exposure to media, community affiliations, and cultural values.
Activity 1.7: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises
Read Chapter 2 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 2.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 2, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Assignment 1 ? Foundations (Part B): Discussion 1?We Were All Children Once
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Assignment 1, Part B: Discussion 1.
Module 1: Foundations
1.1 The Study of Child Development
The focus of your learning in this first topic relates to the basic concepts, theories, research strategies, and debates that characterize research in human development.
Activity 1.4: Viewing Text Citations
It may seem strange to begin a course by reading the last pages of a textbook but this is exactly what you are asked to do. Before you proceed, turn to the section titled ?References? at the back of your Steinberg, Vandell and Bornstein textbook. Take a moment or two to flip through these pages. What you find here is a long list of alphabetically-ordered citations. Now read some of the citations. Hidden in each of these journal citations is a story. And each story begins with a curious researcher asking a question about child development. What follows is hundreds of hours of intense work as the researcher and his/her team design and conduct a study that they hope will provide an answer to their question. Each story ends with a published paper in which the findings from the study are communicated to other curious researchers and the world at large. Each of the research investigations listed in the references pages of your text thus represents a small advance in our understanding of child development.
Activity 1.5: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises
Read Chapter 1 from the text.
Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 1.
Reread the study and exam preparation advice you have been previously given.
Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 1, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential written exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.
Activity 1.6: Reading Research Report and Accessing e-Journals
As noted above, research findings are published in journals or periodicals. Different periodicals specialize in different areas of research. One of the best known journals for research relating to child development is titled appropriately enough, ?Child Development?. Part of your Assignment 1 work involves some library work. Here, you will be perusing a sample of published research papers found in the electronic versions of the journal ?Child Development?.
Familiarize yourself with the information found in the ?Guidelines for Reading a Research Report? document now. It is important that you read this document before starting work on Assignment 1.
The TRU library website has a wealth of resources to assist students, like you, who are accessing this material at a distance. Click?Web Links?and then go to the?TRU Library?link. On the library?s home page, click the?How do I . . . ??tab at the top of the screen to get an idea of the type of help available to you. For information on how to access an article or database, and how to locate specific articles from a citation, take a look at the TRU Library?s ?Library Research 101: Research at a Distance Guide?. This useful guide is available via the Library?s Distance, Regional & Open Learning (DROL) Library Services page at?http://www.tru.ca/library/distance.html.
For the purposes of Assignment 1, you will only need to locate the periodical,?Child Development, and scan any of the journal editions published from 2005 onward. You will only need to examine the title and abstracts of these research reports. Remember, if you are ever prompted to log in or sign in to access library resources, you will need your student number and your library PIN number to do so. Read the ?How to locate the Child Development Journal? document and follow the steps outlined.
Congratulations if this is your first time accessing electronic library resources! You can see that an entire library of academic and professional scholarship is available to you as a student. If you are having problems locating the journal, or would like some guidance on how to locate research materials more effectively, please contact the TRU Library?s Distance, Regional and Open Learning Library Services department. You can ask for help via online chat, email, Facebook, or phone. There is a Contact the Library tab at the top of the Library home page which gives contact information that Open Learning students can use.
Assignment 1 ? Foundations (Part A): Exploration Activity 1?E-Journal Scavenger Hunt
Go to the ?Assignments? section on the course Home Page and complete Part A: Exploration Activity 1 of Assignment 1. Read the directions for the assignment carefully.
Module 1: Foundations
Module 1: Foundations
Overview
Welcome to PSYC 2131, an introductory course on child and adolescent development. All of us are aware that humans change and develop. In our daily lives, we see evidence of this change in the infants, children, and youth who populate our families, schools and communities. And all of us have lived firsthand through our own development and maturation. However, it has been said that science is about seeing the unfamiliar in the familiar. By the end of this course, it is hoped that your knowledge and understanding of what lies behind the familiar reality of human development will deepen. In this course, you will be introduced to what research has revealed about the complex, rich, interconnected, and, at times, surprising facts of human development.
In this first module of PSYC 2131, you will learn about the theories, research strategies, and themes that inform the psychological study of human development. Equipped with this background material, you will then start learning about human growth at the very beginning of life?the moment of conception?through to the birth of the child. Here you will learn how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the overall health of the human newborn.
This module is divided into three topics:
1.1 The Study of Child Development
1.2 Nature with Nurture
1.3 Conception, Prenatal Development and Birth
Learning Objectives
After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:
Explain the basic concepts, guiding principles and goals that inform the study of human development.
Differentiate among and critically compare the major theoretical perspectives that inform the scientific study of human development.
Explain the basic ethical standards used in research with children.
Differentiate among and critically compare the strengths and limitations of the different methods and designs that researchers use when doing research in human development.
Explain and illustrate with examples basic concepts from the field of behavioural genetics.
Differentiate among and identify the different developmental contexts that make up the ecological perspective.
Describe and illustrate with examples, the various ways in which genetic and environmental influences interact.
Summarize the three stages of prenatal development.
Compare different types of prenatal testing.
Provide research-supported recommendations for optimal prenatal development.
Explain what happens at birth, identifying the more common birth complications and the measurements used to assess newborn health.
Resources
Henry, K. B. (2011)?Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein?s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Public Health Agency of Canada (n. d.). Healthy pregnancy quiz. Retrieved from?http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-gs/quiz/quiz-eng.php.
Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011).?Development: Infancy through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Learning Activities
Your work in this course will consist of the following activities:
Textbook Readings
Each module will have assigned chapter readings from the course textbook.
Study Guide
Each textbook chapter has an accompanying chapter in the?Study Guide, which includes detailed learning objectives and chapter outlines, key terms, and a variety of self-test multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions to facilitate your comprehension and review of material.
Note
You can omit the ?Applied Learning and Critical Thinking? sections found within each?Study Guide?chapter.
In addition to the?Study Guide?exercises, you are encouraged to create short at-home exams based on the learning objectives for each module topic. This activity will provide you with feedback on your comprehension and retention of course concepts, and is an excellent preparation for the final exam.
Exploration Activities
These enrichment activities will direct you to a variety of web-based resources pertaining to child development issues and research.
Student Caf?
An informal discussion space called the ?Student Caf?? has been set up for you to easily communicate with other learners in the course about matters of mutual interest regarding your studies and professional development. This is an informal gathering area to help build a learning community, and you will?not?be graded on these postings. For more information about online discussions and netiquette see?http://www.tru.ca/distance/services/learner/netiquette.html.

Course Guide
Overview
Welcome to PSYC 2131:?Introduction to Childhood and Adolescence.
The Course Guide contains important information about the course structure, learning materials, and expectations for completing the course requirements. It also provides information about how to contact your Open Learning Faculty Member, an expert in the course content, who will guide you through the course. Take some time to read through the Course Guide to familiarize yourself with what you need to do to successfully complete your course.
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact your Open Learning Faculty Member. We hope you enjoy the course.
Course Description*
Students are introduced to developmental psychology: the branch of psychology devoted to the study of human development and change. As change and development are an intrinsic part of the human experience, this course is designed to foster a lifetime interest in the process of human development, as students explore key issues, methods, theories and research findings in this field. The content of the course is organized chronologically-beginning at the point of conception and following the trajectory of human development through to the teen years. The interconnectedness of developmental processes is a major theme, and includes the interrelations between a child?s physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. The intricate relation between children and the contexts that support their development are also emphasized, such as family life, peers, and culture.
Prerequisites*
Recommended:?Provincial Grade 12 Diploma or equivalent
Exclusions*
PSYC 3151:?Developmental Psychology of Children?or PSYC 3451:?Adolescent Development
Learning Outcomes*
After you have successfully completed this course, you will be able to:
Discuss the major theoretical perspectives and research strategies researchers employ in the scientific study of human development.
Explain the major physical, cognitive, and socioemotional developments that occur across development from conception to the teen years.
Discuss the impact of developmental contexts such as family life, schooling, peer groups, and media on children?s development.
Critically reflect on developmental issues and research findings as presented in published articles, scholarly presentations, and web resources devoted to child development concerns.
* Approved
Course Guide
Course Topics
The course is divided into four units, which are further divided into topics of study:
Module 1: Foundations
1.1 The Study of Child Development
1.2 Nature with Nurture
1.3 Conception, Prenatal Development and Birth
Module 2: Infancy and Early Childhood
2.1 Physical Development in Infancy
2.2 Cognitive Development in Infancy
2.3 Socioemotional Development in Infancy
2.4 Physical Development in Early Childhood
2.5 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
2.6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
Module 3: Middle Childhood
3.1 Physical Development in Middle Childhood
3.2 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
3.3 Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
Module 4: Adolescence
4.1 Physical Development in Adolescence
4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence
4.3 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Course Guide
Course Materials
This section describes the course materials you will need. You will be consulting a variety of resources throughout the course, including articles and web resources.
Required Textbooks
The following textbook and companion study guide are the primary resources you?ll need for the course:
Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011).?Development: Infancy through adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Henry, K. B. (2011)?Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein?s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Style Guide
TRU Open Learning Social Sciences Style Guide?http://www.tru.ca/library/pdf/socscistyle_ol_2005.pdf
Note
If you have any questions about course textbooks or other materials, please contact Enrolment Services [email protected]?or?1.800.663.9711?(toll-free in Canada),?250.852.7000?(Kamloops, BC), and?1.250.852.7000?(International).
Required Hardware, Software, Computer Skills, and Other Resources
You can find detailed information about the hardware, software, and computer skills requirements for your course at?http://www.tru.ca/distance/services/online_courses.html.
Assignment 1 ? Foundations (100 marks, 12%)
Introduction
This assignment is based on Module 1. It will be graded out of 100 marks and is worth 12 per cent of your final course grade. It has four parts:
Part A: Exploration Activity 1 (15 marks)
Part B: Discussion 1 (15 marks)
Part C: Exploration Activity 2 (20 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (50 marks)
If you have any questions about the assignment, consult your Open Learning Faculty Member. You are encouraged to submit your completed assignment for grading by the end of?Week 3?of the course.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Your assignments should be independently developed and should reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:
Addressed the questions or assignment posed.
Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling. Students can contact the TRU Writing Centre for help with written work at?https://www.tru.ca/writingcentre/Open_Learning_Writing_Centre_Support.html.
Please refer also to any additional criteria that may be included in this individual assignment.
Instructions
Part A: Exploration Activity 1?E-Journal Scavenger Hunt (15 marks)
Your Module 1 text reading provided an overview of the major research designs used to answer research questions about child development. You will now embark on a scavenger hunt to locate examples of published research that exemplify some of these research strategies.
As noted before, research findings in developmental psychology are typically published in journals. The TRU Library contains databases that index these articles. Some of the databases such as PsycARTICLES provide links to full-text articles, which allow you to download the complete article and save it to your own computer. Others such as PsycINFO provide only the abstract, which gives a brief summary of the article, but not access to the full text. For this activity, you are required to peruse a few issues of the well-known developmental journal?Child Development?for a web-based version of a scavenger hunt. For any of you unfamiliar with this term, a?scavenger hunt?is a game in which participants seek to gather all items on a list. You will use the TRU Library website to access PsycINFO where you will find the journal?Child Development. For this part of Assignment 1, you will only need to examine the title and abstracts of research reports.
Note
TRU library carries several periodicals that have the phrase ?Child Development? in their title. Be certain you are drawing from the correct journal.?Child Development?is the complete title of the journal published by the Society for Research in Child Development. If necessary, reread the instructions ?How to locate the journal, Child Development.?
Locate?Child Development?published by the Society for Research in Child Development. Focusing on articles published from 2010 onward, search through their titles and abstracts, and locate the citation and abstract for a study that used a:
Longitudinal Design (4 marks)
Cross-sectional Design (4 marks)
Cross-sequential Design (sometimes called an accelerated longitudinal or simply a sequential design) (4 marks)
Experimental Study (4 marks)
Hint:?The type of design is sometimes provided in the research title.
For each study you select, identify the following:
Reference for the article as it would appear in the “References” section at the end of a research report. The most reliable online source for current and accurate information on American Psychological Association (APA) documentation style (which is updated regularly) is at the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University:?https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/. APA style is specific about all aspects of a reference, including punctuation, italics, etc., so you are advised to consult the Purdue resource. Following is an example of a reference using APA style:
Camione-Barr, N., & Smetana, J. (2010). ?Who said you could wear my sweater?? Adolescent siblings? conflicts and associations with relationship quality.?Child Development, 81(2), 464?471.
Abstract (the paragraph summary of the research found at the beginning of a research article)
Explanation about how the study you selected illustrates the research design in question.
Part B: Discussion 1?We Were All Children Once (15 marks)
Go to the ?Discussions? area on the left-hand navigation menu and complete the first formal discussion posting entitled ?Discussion 1: We Were All Children Once.?
Introduce yourself to your Open Learning Faculty Member and fellow classmates. Explain where in the world you spent your childhood and the general time period. Give an example of a personal observation; an item from news media, magazine, website; etc. that you feel highlights a feature of life for a present day child that differs from your own childhood experiences. Identify what level of Bronfenbrenner?s ?ecological perspective? is captured in your reflection. Explain your choice. (10 marks)
Even though you may have started this course at a different time than your peers, you can read the postings and respond to at least one fellow student?s input. It helps to start building a community of learners, since you are all taking the same course.
Reply to a posting made by another student in which you provide your reflections on the issues raised in their post. (5 marks)
Part C: Exploration Activity 2?Extending the Healthy Pregnancy Quiz (20 marks)
Download?The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy?published by the Minister of Health available at?http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-gs/guide/assets/pdf/hpguide-eng.pdf.
To check your understanding, complete the Healthy Pregnancy Quiz located at the Public Health Agency of Canada website at?http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-gs/quiz/quiz-eng.php.
Consider the range of topics covered in your textbook readings and in?The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy?and propose three additional questions that could be included in this quiz. Along with each of your proposed questions, include an answer with a rationale, including a link to further reading at a reputable and credible website. (20 marks)
Part D: Written Questions (50 marks)
Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:
Watch a 15-minute video entitled?Giant turnip?from the BBC children?s program Mr. Bloom?s Nursery available at?http://www.cbeebies.com/global/mr-blooms-nursery#activity-265006. As you watch the episode, make note of how social learning theory and Piaget?s theory apply to what is being demonstrated and experienced by the children in this video. Then, summarize how the episode integrates both of these perspectives into its portrayal of how children learn, and what is likely to facilitate learning. (10 marks)
Researchers report finding a significant correlation between measures of family stress and levels of aggression found in children. The correlation is positive, meaning that in families under stress, more stress is associated with greater aggression in the children. Note that the correlation also can be stated in the opposite way: aggressiveness in children is associated with more stress in the family. Although we know that correlations cannot be interpreted as cause and effect, it would be common for people to conclude from this finding that family stress causes children to be aggressive. What other causal explanations are possible for this correlation? Explain your answer. (10 marks)
Read the following passage from J. K. Rowling?s (2000, p. 9)?Harry Potter and the Chamber Of Secrets:
Harry looked nothing like the rest of the family. Uncle Vernon was large and necklace, with an enormous black moustache; Aunt Petunia was horde-faced and boney; Dudley was blond, pink and porky. Harry, on the other hand, was small and skinny, with brilliant green eyes and jet black hair that was always untidy. He wore round glasses, and on his forehead was a thin, lightening-shaped scar.
It was this scar that made Harry so particularly unusual, even for a wizard. This scar was the only hint of Harry?s very mysterious past, of the reason he had been left on the Dursley?s doorstep eleven years before.
At the age of one, Harry had somehow survived a curse from the greatest dark sorcerer of all time, Lord Voldemort, whose name most witches and wizards still feared to speak. Harry?s parents had died in Voldemort?s attack, but Harry had escaped with his lightening scar, and somehow ? nobody understood why ? Voldemort?s powers had been destroyed the instant he had failed to kill Harry.
So Harry had been brought up by his dead mother?s sister and her husband. He had spent 10 years with the Dursleys, never understanding why he kept making odd things happen without meaning to, believing the Dursley?s story that he had got his scar in the car crash which had killed his parents.
And then, exactly a year ago, Hogwarts had written to Harry, and the whole story had come out. Harry had taken up his place at wizard school, where he and his scar were famous . . .
Use this passage and your reactions to it to illustrate the following concepts (10 marks):
Passive gene-environment interactions
Evocative gene-environment interactions
Active gene-environment interactions
In this question, you will reflect on how Bronfenbrenner?s ecological model applies to children in different social, economic, and cultural contexts. Specifically, use the following examples of children in traditional Inuit culture (go to?http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/ssognc/inuitlifestyle/) and in traditional Bedouin culture (see?http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Bedouin.aspx). List some of the elements of the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem for children in each culture. (10 marks)
Your textbook discusses several types of teratogens. Choose any?one, and create a one-page (one-sided) infographic aimed at informing women about the potential harmful effects of teratogens. For more information about teratogens, see?http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/en/resourcecentres/pregnancybabies/pregnancy/healthcareinpregnancy/pages/things-to-avoid-during-pregnancy-teratogens.aspx?and?http://www.hss.gov.yk.ca/teratogen-hp.php.
Your infographic would be suitable for information campaigns targeting women?s washrooms in public buildings, restaurants, etc. You could create a handmade infographic and submit a scanned photograph or an online or electronic document. You can find many examples by Googling ?baby infographic? and many online templates are available that you are welcome to use. Your infographic will be graded on visual interest (images, well-organized) and accurate information about the timing and effects of a teratogen. (10 marks)
Submission Instructions
Read the ?Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions? section carefully. As soon as you have completed all parts of Assignment 1, name and save your document, and send it to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. It is recommended that you submit this assignment by the end of?Week 3?if you are following the 16-week Suggested Schedule.
2.Most smartphones are able to identify the phone?s location by means of GPS. This allows applications to provide location-specific information (such as the local news, local weather, or the presence of businesses in the immediate area) based on the phone?s current location. However, such GPS capabilities may also allow other applications to broadcast the phone?s location to other parties. Is this good? How could knowledge of the phone?s location (thus your location) be abused?

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