political opposition in the Middle East

Although the Middle East is less democratic than other world regions, opposition parties and
movements in the region have long struggled for political change. Drawing on the theories and
cases (countries) studied in class, answer the following three questions in a single essay.
1.Describe the main forms of political opposition in the Middle East over the past few decades.
Who are the main actors, and when and where did they operate? What are their main goals or
objectives, how did they try to achieve these objectives, and how successful were they in doing
so? Be sure to discuss both Islamist parties and movements and the Arab Uprisings in your
2.What explains popular support for opposition parties and movements in the Middle East?
Identify the conditions under which opposition parties and movements will attract support
and/or participation, and explain how and why they help opposition forces succeed. Your
answer should draw on the main explanations we have studied in class related to popular
support for Islamist movements and the size and scope of protests during the Arab Uprisings
3.Drawing on the explanations above, as well as current regional and global trends, consider the
future of opposition politics in the Middle East over the next ten years. Who/what are likely to
be the most important opposition actors or organizations? What challenges and opportunities
are they likely to face? Finally, drawing on what you have learned, what recommendations would
you offer to opposition movements and/or their allies in the Middle East?

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